Monday, December 26, 2011: 03:28:05 PM

Polyurethane Elastomers

Author: Prisacariu, Cristina

Published On: 2011

Publisher: Springer

Price:  Euro 99.95

Polyurethane elastomers are polymers with remarkable versatility. Through suitable choice of the diisocyanates and diols combined in their synthesis, a huge range of physical properties are achievable. For example, these may be varied from those typical of soft elastomers to those of hard plastics, simply by varying the dominant diol from a flexible long-chain molecule to a small molecule such as ethylene glycol.
The present book aims to advance this understanding, by means of a systematic study of the effects of varying chemical composition of model polyurethane elas¬tomers on their physical structure at the important nanometre length-scale and the resulting mechanical properties of interest.

In the book, a study was made of how aspects of the constitutive responses of pol¬yurethane elastomers vary with composition: the polyaddition procedure, the hard segment, soft segment and chain extender (mostly diols) were varied systematically in a large number of systems of model and novel materials. Results were related to: microstructural changes, on the basis of evidence from X-ray scattering, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and also dynamic mechanical analyses, differential scanning calorimetry and IR dichroic measure¬ments.

The book covers aspects from the morphology to mechanical aspects focused on the elasticity and inelasticity of amorphous to crystalline polyurethane elastomers, in relation to their sensitivity to chemical and physical structure. In such polymers, resilience of the material is an important attribute. In many applications they are in commercial competition with other, relatively soft, elastomeric materials. The choice of material for any given application then hinges on a spectrum of key prop¬erties offered by relatively soft polymers—stiffness and strain recovery characteris¬ing their elasticity but also inelastic effects such as hysteresis and stress relaxation. In these respects the mechanical properties of polyurethane elastomers are similar to those of other elastomers.

In this book, inelastic effects correlated with systematically varying the chemical structure, were also investigated by including quantitative correlations between the magnitude of the Mullins effect and the fractional energy dissipation by hysteresis under cyclic straining, giving common relations approached by all the materials studied.

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